By Codomo Singapore

A Basic Guide On Cyber Security For Beginners [2023 Edition]

It's an undeniable fact that cyber security is of paramount importance in today's digital world. As technology advances, so does the need to protect ourselves from malicious attacks and data breaches.

While many of us may think our personal information and data are safe when we go online, it's important to remember that there is a real risk for anyone who neglects basic cybersecurity measures.

Whether you're just learning about online safety or want to shore up your existing protocols, this comprehensive guide on cyber security for beginners is here to help!

What is Cyber Security?

Cyber security is a vast and incredibly important field of study and practice that focuses on protecting computer systems, networks, programs and data from unauthorized access or damage.

From massive companies to small businesses, cybersecurity has become an essential part of modern life. Keeping our most sensitive information—including financial records, medical history, governmental files and more—safe requires a robust system to identify potential threats and prevent them before they cause any harm.

Companies employ individuals specializing in cyber security to regularly update their measures and provide quick solutions if faced with a breach.

Cyber security also encompasses digital forensics, helping organizations find the source of a breach and take steps to mitigate any damage done. Even if it's invisible to most users, cybersecurity plays an invaluable role in keeping us safe from cyber criminals or malicious entities.

cyber security for beginners

The Importance of Cyber Security

Cyber security is more important now than ever. With the prevalence of digital technology in our lives, it is crucial that we take steps to ensure our online safety and secure our personal information.

Cybercrime poses a serious threat to individuals and businesses alike, so staying aware of cyber security protocols and best practices can help protect you from criminals who seek to exploit digital vulnerabilities for their gain.

Also, protecting ourselves from cyber threats helps promote the overall health of the internet since any systems found to be insecure create an opportunity for malicious activity to occur.

Ultimately, we all need to do our part by actively engaging in cyber security measures to continue reaping the benefits of living in a digitally connected world without worrying about falling victim to cybercriminals.

Types of Cyber Security Threats

Phishing Attacks

Phishing is an ever-evolving cyber attack and has become a common way scammers gain access to private information. This illegal activity uses malicious emails and websites disguised as legitimate ones, thereby deceiving the user into providing confidential or financial data.

Taking preventative measures such as refraining from opening suspicious links and avoiding public Wi-Fi can go a long way in securing your data against such attacks.

It pays to stay vigilant - ensuring passwords are strong, verifying requests for sensitive information, and keeping software up-to-date will help you protect your information against phishing attempts.

Related Article: 5 Proven Ways to Teach Kids About Phishing


Malware is a type of malicious software used by hackers to damage computers and networks. Malware such as viruses, worms, and Trojans can cause serious harm to files and programs, allowing hackers to steal confidential information or disrupt networks.

It has become increasingly difficult for businesses and individuals to protect themselves from cyber-attacks, which are becoming more common with the growth of technology.

Companies rely on anti-virus prevention tools and data encryption protocols to help prevent malware from infiltrating their systems. Still, progress in these techniques must constantly evolve to keep up with the latest threats.

Denial of Service

In the context of cyber security, denial of Service (DoS) is an attack that targets a computer or a network-based resource. It overwhelms the system with traffic and requests, preventing authentic users from connecting and obtaining the necessary information.

This attack is often used to shut down websites, making them unavailable for legitimate use.

DoS attacks are typically performed using tools such as bot networks or computers. They can damage an organization's computing infrastructure significantly because these types of attacks increase network latency and cause computers to crash or slow down.

As such, this type of attack poses a serious risk to cybersecurity, which is why businesses should take appropriate measures to protect their networks from potential DoS attacks.

cyber security for beginners

Man in the Middle

Man in the Middle (MITM) attacks in cyber security are a type of malicious attack where an attacker can intercept communication sent between two parties. This can be done from afar, as these attacks don’t require physical proximity to the victim(s).

MITM attacks allow attackers to modify, redirect or block legitimate communications or even impersonate one of the legitimate participants. This can give them access to sensitive data such as usernames and passwords, making it a dangerous cyber security issue.

To defend against Man in the Middle attacks, visitors must take caution when encountering untrusted networks which may lend themselves to MITM attacks.

Individuals should also perform regular systems audits and practice authentication procedures such as multi-factor authentication.

SQL Injection

SQL Injection is one of the most prominent cyber security threats today.

It occurs when malicious actors gain access to sensitive data like usernames, passwords, and other confidential information by exploiting vulnerabilities in Structured Query Language (SQL) in a website or application. It's an easy and attractive method for attackers as it requires little technical knowledge to exploit a system for malicious purposes.

What's worse is that even basic precautions such as proper input validation aren't enough to stop SQL injection attacks, so businesses must be extra vigilant in protecting against this type of attack.

Password Attacks

Password attacks are a type of cyber security attack that targets passwords used to access websites, email accounts, and other applications. These attacks can be active or passive, meaning the cybercriminal can attempt to gain information directly from the user or target the systems where data is stored.

Examples include dictionary attacks, brute-force attacks, rainbow table attacks and social engineering. Attackers employ these methods to crack encrypted passwords and even try to guess common combinations using software tools.

As such, users must practice good password security by using strong passphrases comprising random words - not dictionary words - and using two-factor authentication when available.

cyber security for beginners

How to Be Safe From Cyber Attacks


Cyber attacks can be incredibly damaging to individuals, organizations, and businesses; to keep safe from them, you must protect yourself with antivirus software.

Antivirus programs are designed to detect malicious viruses, worms, and Trojans, which can cause permanent data loss and identity theft. They also monitor any suspicious activity on your computer that could signal a breach or attack from the outside.

In addition to safeguarding against online threats, antivirus software can provide you with the peace of mind that your personal information is well protected. Keeping an up-to-date version of an efficient antivirus program running on your system is crucial for ensuring cyber safety.


Firewalls can play a crucial role in keeping you safe from cyber attacks. Firewalls act as the first defence against malicious activity, a strong barrier between the user’s computer and the rest of the Internet.

A firewall is designed to monitor incoming and outgoing data traffic, blocking potentially dangerous content while allowing safe, legitimate communications.

It is important that firewalls are properly configured to keep up with changing threats; depending on how computer networks are structured, additional hardware firewalls may be deployed for added protection.

Additionally, all software must be kept up-to-date, for unpatched vulnerabilities may allow intruders access even when a powerful firewall has been established.


Encryption is one of the most important tools for staying safe from cyber attacks. It helps to keep information secure by making sure unauthorized people can’t access it without a key or password for decryption.

When encrypted, data is turned into an unreadable form, and hackers will have a hard time using any stolen data. Encrypting data is quite easy, and many software packages are available to help with this task.

As internet security gets more sophisticated, encryption should be utilized as a part of any online protection strategy to efficiently protect against cyber attack threats while still providing ease of use and access when needed.

cyber security for beginners


Cyber security has become an increasingly important issue in today's world due to the rise of computer-related crime. Biometrics can be used as an added layer of security to protect yourself from these cyber attacks.

Biometrics are measures of physical characteristics such as fingerprints, face recognition, and retinal scans, which are almost impossible to replicate.

Using biometric identification methods, personal information and passwords can be safeguarded against hackers attempting to gain access without general knowledge or permission.

This additional layer of security guarantees that your data is kept safe and secure from malicious individuals or organizations. It is essential for any individual concerned about their data protection to consider the adoption of biometric technology into their system for added protection from cyber attacks.

Authentication Methods

One of the most important steps we should take to protect ourselves online is to use several different authentication methods. Authentication methods are a process by which we prove our identity, allowing us access to specific accounts and websites.

Some common authentication methods include two-factor authentication, biometrics, and one-time passwords. Two-factor authentication requires both a password and an additional form of identification, such as a code sent to your phone or email address.

Biometrics are forms of identification that use body parts such as fingerprints, face recognition, and voice recognition for verification.

Lastly, one-time passwords expire quickly, often after only one use making them more secure than traditional written passwords that can be guessed or stolen.

It may require more time upfront to set up these security solutions but using multiple authentication methods is key for keeping our private information safe from possible cyber attacks.

Related Article: It's Never Too Late: How to Start Teaching Cybersecurity to Kids


It's never too late to take action against cyber-attacks and create a secure online environment. Educating yourself on basic cybersecurity threats is essential to staying secure while surfing the web.

Constant vigilance is key to staying protected from malicious attacks such as phishing, malware installations, ransomware, etc. Lastly, remember not to put all your eggs in one basket by utilizing unique passwords for each account and changing them regularly.

Be proactive about cybersecurity measures today so you can remain one step ahead tomorrow!